Endogenous Metabolite

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  1. Berberine hydrochloride was novelly found that it has various beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system and significant anti-inflammatory activities. Berberine can effectively reduce intracellular superoxide levels in LPS-stimulated macrophages. Such a restoration of cellular redox by berberine is mediated by its selective inhibition of gp91phox expression and enhancement of SOD activity.

  2. Prednisolone is a glucocorticoid with the general properties of the corticosteroids.
  3. Ercalcitriol (1α,25-Dihydroxy Vitamin D2) is an active metabolite of vitamin D2.
  4. anticancer and radioprotection agent

    Geniposidic acid is an effective anticancer and radioprotection agent.
  5. Levothyroxine, also L-thyroxine or T4, is a synthetic form of the thyroid hormone thyroxine, which is normally secreted by the follicular cells of the thyroid gland.
  6. Prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) is the theoretical cyclooxygenase metabolite of dihomo-γ-linolenic acid (DGLA), but it is virtually undetectable in the plasma of normal humans or other animals. The IC50 of PGE1 for the inhibition of ADP-induced human platelet aggregation is 40 nM.
  7. Uracil-d4 is the labelled compound form of Uracil which is a nitrogenous base on RNA nucleosides.
  8. 5-Amino-3H-imidazole-4-Carboxamide (AICA) is an important precursor for the synthesis of purines in general and of the nucleobases adenine and guanine in particular.
  9. trans-Zeatin is a member of the plant hormone family known as ??cytokinins??, which regulate cell division, development, and nutrient processing.
  10. Ethylmalonic acid is non-carcinogenic potentially toxic and associated with anorexia nervosa and malonyl-CoA decarboxylase deficiency.
  11. 2',3'-cGAMP (2'-3'-cyclic GMP-AMP) is a endogenous cGAMP in mammalian cells.
  12. p32-kinase activator

    D-erythro-Sphingosine (Erythrosphingosine) is a very potent activator of p32-kinase with an EC50 of 8 μM, and inhibits protein kinase C (PKC). D-erythro-Sphingosine (Erythrosphingosine) is also a PP2A activator.
  13. Indole-3-carboxylic acid is a normal urinary indolic tryptophan metabolite and has been found elevated in patients with liver diseases.
  14. potent cerebroprotection

    Dehydroascorbic acid, a blood-brain barrier transportable form of vitamin C, mediates potent cerebroprotection in experimental stroke.
  15. 4-Pyridoxic acid is a catabolic product of vitamin B6 which is excreted in the urine.
  16. (S)-2-Hydroxy-3-phenylpropanoic acid is a product of phenylalanine catabolism. An elevated level of phenyllactic acid is found in body fluids of patients with or phenylketonuria.
  17. (R)-(+)-Citronellal, isolated from citrus, lavender and eucalyptus oils, is a monoterpenoid and main component of citronellal oil with a distinct lemon scent. A flavouring agent. Used for insect repellent and antifungal properties.
  18. Smilagenin (SMI) is a lipid-soluble small-molecule steroidal sapogenin from Rhizoma anemarrhenae and Radix asparagi widely used in traditional Chinese medicine for treating chronic neurodegeneration diseases.
  19. D-(+)-Phenyllactic acid is an anti-bacterial agent, excreted by Geotrichum candidum, inhibits a range of Gram-positive from humans and foodstuffs and Gram-negative bacteria found in humans.
  20. (S)-Leucic acid is an amino acid metabolite.
  21. Palmitoylcarnitine chloride is a fatty acid-derived mitochondrial substrate, and selectively decreases cell survival in colorectal and prostate cancer cells by affecting on pro-inflammatory pathways, Ca2+ influx, and DHT-like effects.
  22. Homogentisic acid is a specific metabolite in urine and serum, which is used for diagnosis of alkaptonuria.
  23. L-Valyl-L-phenylalanine (Valylphenylalanine; H-VAL-PHE-OH) has been reported as biocompatible polymer.
  24. Benzo[a]pyrene shows lung carcinogenicity in animal models, and it is frequently used in chemoprevention studies.
  25. N2-methylguanosine is a modified nucleoside that occurs at several specific locations in many tRNA's.
  26. endogenous trace amine neuromodulor

    m-Tyramine is an endogenous trace amine neuromodulor. m-Tyramine has effects on the adrenergic and dopaminergic receptor.
  27. biomarker

    N6-Etheno 2'-deoxyadenosine is a reactive oxygen species (ROS)/reactive nitrogen species (RNS)-induced DNA oxidation product, used as a biomarker to evaluate chronic inflammation and lipid peroxidation in animal or human tissues.
  28. Anserine is a dipeptide found in skeletal muscle of vertebrates.
  29. Uridine triphosphate (UTP;Uridine 5'-triphosphate) is a nucleotide that regulates the functions of the pancreas in endocrine and exocrine secretion, proliferation, channels, transporters, and intracellular signaling under normal and disease states.
  30. HO-1 inhibitor

    Zinc Protoporphyrin (Zn(II)-protoporphyrin IX) is a competitive heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) inhibitor, markedly attenuates the protective effects of Phloroglucinol (PG) against H2O2.
  31. Nicotinuric acid is an acyl glycine. Nicotinuric acid is a metabolite of nicotinic acid.
  32. Lathosterol is a cholesterol-like molecule. Serum Lathosterol concentration is an indicator of whole-body cholesterol synthesis.
  33. 7-Methylguanine is a metabolite of DNA methylation. It can be generated by methylating agents, and used as a probe of protein?CDNA interactions and a key component of DNA sequencing method.
  34. 8-Hydroxyguanine is a major pre-mutagenic lesion generated from reactive oxygen species. It causes G-T and A-C substitutions.
  35. Turanose is a reducing disaccharide.
  36. metalloendopeptidase inhibitor

    Phosphoramidon Disodium Salt is a metalloendopeptidase inhibitor.
  37. elastogenesis inhibitor

    L-Ascorbic acid (L-Ascorbate), an electron donor, is an endogenous antioxidant agent. L-Ascorbic acid inhibits selectively Cav3.2 channels with an IC50 of 6.5 μM. L-Ascorbic acid is also a collagen deposition enhancer and an elastogenesis inhibitor.
  38. 2,6-Dimethoxybenzoic acid is a member of organic compounds known as o-methoxybenzoic acids and derivatives.
  39. (-)-Menthol is a key component of peppermint oil that binds and activates transient receptor potential melastatin 8 (TRPM8), a Ca2+-permeable nonselective cation channel, to increase [Ca2+]i. Antitumor activity.
  40. micronutrient

    Thiamine hydrochloride (Thiamine chloride hydrochloride) is an essential micronutrient needed as a cofactor for many central metabolic enzymes.
  41. Choline bitartrate is a form of the nutrient choline which is found in foods.
  42. Choline chloride is a quaternary ammonium salt used as an additive for animal feed.
  43. Deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA) is a corticosteroid.
  44. excitatory transmitter/agonist

    L-Glutamic acid monosodium salt acts as an excitatory transmitter and an agonist at all subtypes of glutamate receptors (metabotropic, kainate, NMDA, and AMPA). (S)-Glutamic acid shows a direct activating effect on the release of DA from dopaminergic terminals.
  45. Impulsin (AM 3112) is an active endogenous compound which can used for preventing virus infection of the respiratory tract.
  46. COX-2 inhibitor

    Salicylic acid (2-Hydroxybenzoic acid) is a beta hydroxy acid that occurs as a natural compound in plants which is an inhibitor of ethylene biosynthesis and cyclooxygenase activity.
  47. Sucralose is an activator of taste receptor, type 1, member 2 (T1R2) and taste receptor type 1, member 3 (T1R3).
  48. Vitamin D2 (Ergocalciferol) is a form of vitamin D, used as a vitamin D supplement.
  49. 3-methoxy Tyramine (HCl) is a natural metabolite of dopamine, produced by catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT).

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