Endogenous Metabolite

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  1. Berberine hydrochloride was novelly found that it has various beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system and significant anti-inflammatory activities. Berberine can effectively reduce intracellular superoxide levels in LPS-stimulated macrophages. Such a restoration of cellular redox by berberine is mediated by its selective inhibition of gp91phox expression and enhancement of SOD activity.

  2. Ercalcitriol (1α,25-Dihydroxy Vitamin D2) is an active metabolite of vitamin D2.
  3. trans-Zeatin is a member of the plant hormone family known as ??cytokinins??, which regulate cell division, development, and nutrient processing.
  4. 2',3'-cGAMP (2'-3'-cyclic GMP-AMP) is a endogenous cGAMP in mammalian cells.
  5. p32-kinase activator

    D-erythro-Sphingosine (Erythrosphingosine) is a very potent activator of p32-kinase with an EC50 of 8 μM, and inhibits protein kinase C (PKC). D-erythro-Sphingosine (Erythrosphingosine) is also a PP2A activator.
  6. Indole-3-carboxylic acid is a normal urinary indolic tryptophan metabolite and has been found elevated in patients with liver diseases.
  7. potent cerebroprotection

    Dehydroascorbic acid, a blood-brain barrier transportable form of vitamin C, mediates potent cerebroprotection in experimental stroke.
  8. endogenous trace amine neuromodulor

    m-Tyramine is an endogenous trace amine neuromodulor. m-Tyramine has effects on the adrenergic and dopaminergic receptor.
  9. HO-1 inhibitor

    Zinc Protoporphyrin (Zn(II)-protoporphyrin IX) is a competitive heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) inhibitor, markedly attenuates the protective effects of Phloroglucinol (PG) against H2O2.
  10. Lathosterol is a cholesterol-like molecule. Serum Lathosterol concentration is an indicator of whole-body cholesterol synthesis.
  11. 2, 3-Diaminopropionic acid is a metabolite of b-oxalyl-L-a, b-diaminopropionic acid a neurotoxic amino acid (ODAP).

  12. Suberylglycine is an acyl glycine, which is a normally minor metabolite of fatty acid.
  13. unique pigment

    Melanin is a unique pigment with myriad functions. It is multifunctional, providing defense against environmental stresses such as ultraviolet (UV) light, oxidizing agents and ionizing radiation.
  14. neuroanatomical tracer

    Biocytin is a classical neuroanatomical tracer commonly used to map brain connectivity. Biocytin is used as a versatile marker in anterograde, retrograde and intracellular neuroanatomical investigations and in biotinidase assays.
  15. NOS inhibitor

    SDMA (Symmetric dimethylarginine) is an endogenous inhibitor of nitric oxide (NO) synthase activity.
  16. Allopurinol riboside, a metabolite of allopurinol, shows potent activities against parasites.
  17. L-CPT1 inhibitor

    Teglicar is a selective and reversible inhibitor of liver isoform of carnitine palmitoyl-transferase 1 (L-CPT1).
  18. cholesterol biosynthesis inhibitor

    Lapaquistat (T-91485), a cholesterol biosynthesis inhibitor, is the active metabolite of TAK-475. Lapaquistat can decrease statin-induced myotoxicity in lipid-lowering therapy.
  19. signal transducing G proteins activator

    5'-GTP trisodium salt hydrate is an activator of the signal transducing G proteins and also serves as an energy-rich precursor of mononucleotide units in the enzymatic biosynthesis of DNA and RNA.
  20. Acetoacetic acid sodium salt is a metabolite of non-esterified fatty acids, involved in the development of human diabetes. Acetoacetic acid sodium salt induces oxidative stress to inhibit the assembly of very low density lipoprotein in bovine hepatocytes.
  21. neuromodulator

    3-Methoxytyramine, a well known extracellular metabolite of 3-hydroxytyramine/dopamine, is a neuromodulator.
  22. iron mobilizer

    Guanosine 5'-diphosphate disodium salt is a nucleoside diphosphate. Guanosine 5'-diphosphate is a potential iron mobilizer, which prevents the hepcidin-ferroportin interaction and modulating the interleukin-6 (IL-6)/stat-3 pathway.
  23. Galactose 1-phosphate Potassium salt is is an intermediate in the galactose metabolism and nucleotide sugars.
  24. N8-Acetylspermidine dihydrochloride is a polyamine.
  25. Pi-Methylimidazoleacetic acid hydrochloride is a potential neurotoxin.
  26. Aldosterone D8 is a deuterium labeled Aldosterone. Aldosterone, produced in the adrenal zona glomerulosa, regulates blood pressure.
  27. Gamma-glutamylcysteine (TFA) ((γ-glutamylcysteine (TFA)), an intermediate in glutathione (GSH) synthesis, is a dipeptide served as an essential cofactor for the antioxidant enzyme glutathione peroxidase (GPx).
  28. immunomodulatory agent

    3-Hydroxyanthranilic Acid (3-HAA, 3-HANA), a tryptophan metabolite, has an immunomodulatory effect that may result from inhibition of PI3K/Akt/mTOR and NF-κB activity, thereby decreasing the production of pro-inflammatory mediators.
  29. antioxidant

    2-Phospho-L-ascorbic acid trisodium acts as an antioxidant and a stimulator of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) production.
  30. OCS-FA

    Heptadecanoic acid is an odd chain saturated fatty acid (OCS-FA). Heptadecanoic acid is associated with several diseases, including the incidence of coronary heart disease, prediabetes and type 2 diabetes as well as multiple sclerosis.
  31. antitumor agent

    Perillyl alcohol, a monoterpene, is active in inducing apoptosis in tumor cells without affecting normal cells.
  32. Inhibitor of tumor angiogenesis and growth

    4-Hydroxybenzyl alcohol is a phenolic compound widely distributed in various kinds of plants. Anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, anti-nociceptive activity. Neuroprotective effect. Inhibitor of tumor angiogenesis and growth.
  33. Antifungal agent

    Nerol is a constituent of neroli oil. Nerol Nerol triggers mitochondrial dysfunction and induces apoptosis via elevation of Ca2+ and ROS. Antifungal activity.
  34. Antibacterial agent

    2'-Deoxyuridine 5'-monophosphate disodium salt (dUMP) is a substrate for thymidylate synthase and is converted to deoxythymidine monophosphate (dTMP). The inhibition of dUMP to dTMP at the methylation step is a key in controlling bacterial and eukaryotic cell growth.
  35. detergent

    Glycochenodeoxycholic acid sodium salt (Chenodeoxycholylglycine sodium salt) is a bile acid formed in the liver from chenodeoxycholate and glycine. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for absorption and is itself absorbed. Glycochenodeoxycholic acid sodium salt (Chenodeoxycholylglycine sodium salt) induces hepatocyte apoptosis.
  36. anticancer agent

    Ursolic acid, a naturally occurring triterpenoid, induces the apoptosis of human cancer cells through multiple signaling pathways.
  37. antioxidant agent

    Flavone (2-Phenylchromone, 2-Phenyl-4-chromone, 2-Phenyl-4-benzopyron), a class of flavonoids, mainly found in spices and red or purple plant foods with antioxidant, anti-proliferative, anti-tumor, anti-microbial, estrogenic, acetyl cholinesterase, anti-inflammatory activities and are also used in cancer, cardiovascular disease, neurodegenerative disorders etc.
  38. HSF1 inhibitor

    DTHIB is a direct and selective heat shock factor 1 (HSF1) inhibitor with a Kd of 160 nM.
  39. L-LEUCINE-13C6, also known as 13C6-D-Leucine or L-Leucine-1,2,3,4,5,5'-13C6, is a fully 13C labelled D-Leucine. L-Leucine is an essential branched-chain amino acid (BCAA), which activates the mTOR signaling pathway.

  40. mGluR II agonist

    Xanthurenic acid is a putative endogenous Group II metabotropic glutamate receptor agonist, on sensory transmission in the thalamus.
  41. N-Acetyloxytocin is isolated and characterized in the neurointermediate lobe of the rat pituitary (NIL) and their presence in several brain areas of the rat.
  42. γ-Glu-Gly, a γ-glutamyl dipeptide, is a human lipid metabolite.γ-Glu-Gly has a similar structure to GABA (γ-aminobutyric acid) and can act as an antagonist of excitatory amino acids.
  43. Xenin is a 25-amino acid peptide initially isolated from human gastric mucosa. Xenin is a gut hormone that can reduce food intake.

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