Small molecules play a pivotal role in Endocrinology Research. These are low molecular weight compounds that have a significant impact on the endocrine system, hormones, and their receptors. Here are some key aspects of how small molecules are involved in this field:

  • Hormone Mimetics and Inhibitors: Small molecules are used to develop synthetic compounds that mimic the actions of hormones or inhibit their effects. For example, drugs like metformin for diabetes management and selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) for breast cancer treatment are used to either mimic or block hormonal activity.
  • Receptor Modulation: Small molecules can bind to hormone receptors and modulate their activity. This is crucial in developing drugs that target specific hormone receptors, like the use of small molecule agonists and antagonists to regulate thyroid hormone receptors.
  • Metabolism Regulation: Endocrinology research often focuses on metabolism and how hormones like insulin regulate it. Small molecules are employed to understand and develop drugs targeting enzymes involved in metabolism, such as glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) agonists for diabetes treatment.
  • Steroid Hormone Production: Small molecules may be utilized to influence the production of steroid hormones in the adrenal glands or gonads. This is essential for conditions like Cushing's syndrome or polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).
  • Hormone Assays: In laboratory research, small molecules are used as tracers or markers in hormone assays. For instance, small molecule fluorophores can be attached to antibodies to detect hormone levels in blood samples.

Drug Development: Endocrinology research relies on small molecules as potential drug candidates. Researchers design and test small molecules for their effectiveness in modulating hormonal pathways, with the goal of developing new therapies for endocrine disorders.
In summary, small molecules are indispensable tools in Endocrinology Research, enabling scientists to better understand the endocrine system's intricacies and develop novel treatments for a wide range of hormonal disorders and conditions. Their versatility and specificity make them valuable assets in advancing our knowledge of endocrinology and improving patient care.

Endocrinology Disease Products

Endocrinology Research Products

Kisspeptin Receptor

Leptin Receptors

Melanocortin (MC) Receptors

Mineralocorticoid Receptors

Ghrelin Receptors

Natriuretic Peptide Receptors

NPY Receptors

Motilin Receptor

PTH Receptor

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Catalog No.
Product Name
Product Information
Product Citation
  1. Androgen Receptor antagonist

    (R)-Bicalutamide is an active competitive non-steroidal androgen receptor antagonist with an IC50 of 0.17 μM for MDA 453 cells.
  2. Androgen antagonist

    17 alpha-propionate is a new topical and peripherally selective androgen antagonist.
  3. Aromatase inhibitor

    Anastrozole is a third-generation nonsteroidal selective aromatase inhibitor. It may offer greater selectivity compared with other aromatase inhibitors, being without any intrinsic endocrine effects and with no apparent effect on the synthesis of adrenal steroids.
  4. Androgen Receptor agonist

    Andarine (GTX-007) is an investigational selective androgen receptor modulator (SARM).
  5. RAAS inhibitor

    Benazepril hydrochloride is a non-peptide angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor. Reduces blood pressure and myocardial hypertrophy in spontaneous hypertensive rats.

  6. Glucocorticoid Receptor Agonist

    Betamethasone dipropionate is a glucocorticoid steroid with anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive abilities.
  7. Betamethasone valerate is a potent glucocorticoid steroid with anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive properties.
  8. Androgen Receptor antagonist

    Bicalutamide is an oral non-steroidal anti-androgen used in the treatment of prostate cancer and hirsutism.
  9. Budesonide is a glucocorticoid steroid for the treatment of asthma, non-infectious rhinitis.
  10. RAAS antagonist

    Candesartan is an angiotensin receptor blocker (also called an angiotensin-II receptor antagonist or an AIIRA).
  11. Candesartan is an angiotensin II receptor antagonist used mainly for the treatment of hypertension.
  12. Aromatase Inhibitor

    Chrysin is a naturally occurring flavone chemically extracted from the blue passion flower (Passiflora caerulea). It has been shown to induce an anti-inflammatory effect, most likely by inhibition of COX-2 expression and via IL-6 signaling. In rodent in vivo studies, chrysin was found anxiolytic.
  13. Clomifene inhibits estrogen receptors in hypothalamus, inhibiting negative feedback of estrogen on gonadotropin release, leading to up-regulation of the hypothalamic-Cpituitary-Cadrenal axis.
  14. Androgen Receptor Modulators

    Ostarine is an androgen receptor modulator (SARM)
  15. Deflazacort is a glucocorticoid used as an anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressant.
  16. Dienogest is an oral progestin that has antiandrogenic activity and as a result can improve androgenic symptoms.
  17. Drospirenone is a synthetic hormone used in birth control pills.
  18. dual 5alpha-reductase inhibitor

    Dutasteride is a dual 5-a reductase inhibitor that inhibits conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone (DHT).
  19. ACE inhibitor

    Enalapril is an angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor used in the treatment of hypertension and some types of chronic heart failure.
  20. RAAS inhibitor

    Enalaprilat is the active metabolite of enalapril. It is the first dicarboxylate-containing ACE inhibitor and was developed partly to overcome these limitations of captopril.
  21. Raloxifene is an oral selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) that has estrogenic actions on bone and anti-estrogenic actions on the uterus and breast. It is used in the prevention of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women.
  22. Aromatase inhibitor

    Exemestane is an oral steroidal aromatase inhibitor that is used in ER-positive breast cancer in addition to surgery and/or radiation in post-menopausal women.
  23. Finasteride is a synthetic type II 5α-reductase inhibitor. This enzyme converts testosterone to dihydrotestosterone (DHT).
  24. Flunisolide is a corticosteroid often used to treat allergic rhinitis.The principal mechanism of action of Flunisolide is to activate glucocorticoid receptors, meaning it has an anti-inflammatory action.
  25. Androgen receptor antagonist

    Flutamide is an antiandrogen drug, with its active metablolite binding at androgen receptor with Ki values of 55 nM, and primarily used to treat prostate cancer.
  26. Aromatase inhibitor

    Fulvestrant is an estrogen receptor antagonist with no agonist effects, which works both by down-regulating and by degrading the estrogen receptor.
  27. GPR119 agonist

    GSK-1292263 is a novel GPR119 agonist.
  28. Estrogen/progestogen Receptor agonist

    Hexestrol is a carcinogenic synthetic estrogen that inhibits microtubule polymerization and the formation of ribbon structures. It is an inhibitor of lipid peroxidation.
  29. Hydrocortisone is a steroid hormone or glucocorticoid produced by the adrenal gland.
  30. AT1 antagonist

    Irbesartan is an angiotensin II receptor antagonist used mainly for the treatment of hypertension.
  31. ERRα and ERRγ inverse agonist

    Kaempferol is found to inhibit bovine aorta myosin light chain kinase with a Ki of 0.3-0.5 microM and also is found to inhibit VEGF expression and in vitro angiogenesis through a novel ERK-NFκB-cMyc-p21 pathway.
  32. Aromatase inhibitor

    Letrozole is an Aromatase inhibitor. CGS 20267 is a new non-steroidal compound which potently inhibits aromatase in vitro (IC50 of 11.5 nM) and in vivo (ED50 of 1?€?3 μg/kg p.o.)
  33. Levonorgestrelis a synthetic progesterone analog; binds to the progesterone receptor (relative binding affinities are < 0.02, 7.5, 17, 58 and 323 % for estrogen receptors, glucocorticoid receptors, mineralocorticoid receptors, androgen receptors and progesterone receptors respectively).
  34. ERβ agonist

    LY500307 is a potent, selective estrogen receptor beta agonist with an EC50 of 0.66 nM.
  35. Androgen receptor antagonist

    MDV3100 is androgen-receptor inhibitor. Highly recommended inhibitor in AR research.
  36. Megestrol Acetate is a progesterone derivative with antineoplastic properties
  37. Meprednisone is a glucocorticoid and a methylated derivative of prednisone
  38. synthetic glucocorticoid receptor agonist

    Methylprednisolone is an apoptosis inducer and was also found to inhibit human small cell lung cancer cell growth in vitro.
  39. Mifepristone, an antioxidant and glucocorticoid receptor antagonist, demonstrates the ability to suppress activation of NFκB, a nuclear transcription factor that affects the expression of various adhesion molecules and several inflammatory genes.
  40. Olmesartan is an angiotensin II receptor antagonist indicated for the treatment of hypertension. It may be used alone or in combination with other antihypertensive agents.
  41. Perindopril Butylamine Salt is an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor.
  42. Prednisolone is a glucocorticoid with the general properties of the corticosteroids.
  43. Glucocorticoid Receptor agonist

    Prednisone reduces mucosal TNF-a production, intestinal permeability and levels of NF-kB expression.
  44. ACE inhibitor

    Ramipril is an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor with IC50 of 5 nM.
  45. RNA polymerase inhibitor

    Antibiotic; inhibits bacterial RNA polymerase. Prototypical activator of the pregnane X receptor (PXR).
  46. Estrogen receptor antagonist

    Tamoxifen Citrateis a selective and potent inhibitor of mammalian sterol isomerase.
  47. Angiotensin II receptor antagonist

    Tasosartan is an angiotensin II receptor antagonist.
  48. AT1 Antagonist

    Telmisartan is an angiotensin II receptor antagonist that inhibits the angiotensin II AT1 receptor.
  49. estrogen-receptor modulator

    Toremifene citrate (Z-Toremifene citrate) is a second-generation selective estrogen-receptor modulator (SERM) in development for the prevention of osteoporosis. Toremifene citrate also potent inhibits infectious EBOV Zaire and Marburg (MARV) with IC50 of 0.07 ?M and 2.6 ?M, respectively.
  50. mast cell stabilizer

    Nedocromil is a medication considered as mast cell stabilizer which act to prevent wheezing, shortness of breath, and other breathing problems caused by asthma. It is administered by an inhaler under the brand name Tilade.

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