Neuronal Signaling

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  1. Amyloid beta (Aβ or Abeta) is a peptide of 36-C43 amino acids that is processed from the Amyloid precursor protein. Amyloid β-Peptide (1-42) human is a 42-amino acid peptide which plays a key role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease.
  2. COX inhibitor

    Acetaminophen (paracetamol) is a selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor with an IC50 of 25.8 μM; is a widely used antipyretic and analgesic drug. Acetaminophen is a potent hepatic N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) inhibitor.
  3. COX-2 inhibitor

    Asaraldehyde is a selective COX-2 inhibitor.
  4. mAChR antagonist

    Atropine is a competitive antagonist for the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor types M1, M2, M3, M4 and M5.
  5. HIV-1 production Inhibitor

    Baicalin is a known prolyl endopeptidase inhibitor and affects the GABA receptors.
  6. muscarinic receptor antagonist

    Biperiden hydrochloride is a muscarinic receptor antagonist that displays some selectivity for the M1 subtype
  7. Gamma-secretase inhibitor

    BMS-708163 is an oral gamma secretase inhibitor designed for selective inhibition of amyloid beta synthesis.
  8. Muscarinic receptor agonist

    Bethanechol is a parasympathomimetic choline carbamate that selectively stimulates muscarinic receptors without any effect on nicotinic receptors.
  9. COX-2 inhibitor

    Celecoxib is a sulfa non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) and selective COX-2 inhibitor used in the treatment of osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, acute pain, painful menstruation and menstrual symptoms, and to reduce numbers of colon and rectum polyps in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis.

  10. (+)-Clopidogrel hydrogen sulfate is an oral, thienopyridine class antiplatelet agent used to inhibit blood clots in coronary artery disease, peripheral vascular disease, and cerebrovascular disease.
  11. NMDA antagonist

    Non-opioid analgesic with muscle relaxant properties.
  12. Dihydropyrimidinase Inhibitor

    Dihydromyricetin (Ampelopsin (flavanol); Ampeloptin) is a natural antioxidant with good prospects.
  13. Gamma secretase inhibitor

    DAPT (GSI-IX) is an inhibitor of γ-secretase that causes a reduction in Aβ40 and Aβ42 levels in human primary neuronal cultures with IC50 values of 115 and 200 nM for total Aβ and Aβ42 respectively.
  14. COX inhibitor

    Diclofenac Sodium is a non-selective COX inhibitor with IC50 of 0.5 μg/ml and 0.5 μg/ml for COX-1 and -2 in intact cells, respectively, used as a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) to relieve pain and reduce swelling in flammation.
  15. Neuroprotectant

    Dimebon dihydrochloride is a non-selective antihistamine that displays cognitive enhancing abilities.
  16. AChE inhibitor

    Donepezil is a centrally acting reversible acetylcholinesterase inhibitor.
  17. COMT inhibitor

    Entacapone is a specific, potent, peripherally acting catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) inhibitor with IC50 of 151 nM for PD treatment.
  18. COX inhibitor

    Etodolac (AY-24236) is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory compound that is a non-selective inhibitor of COX (IC50=53.5 nM).
  19. AChR antagonist

    Fesoterodine fumarate is a medicine which is used in urinary urgency, reducing the frequency of passing urine and urge urinary incontinence
  20. Benzodiazepine antagonist

    Flumazenil, an imidazobenzodiazepine derivative, antagonizes the actions of benzodiazepines on the central nervous system. Flumazenil competitively inhibits the activity at the benzodiazepine recognition site on the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor complex. Flumazenil is a weak partial agonist in some animal models of activity, but has little or no agonist activity in humans.
  21. Furosemide is a non-competitive antagonist at GABAA receptors with ~ 100-fold greater selectivity for α6-containing receptors than α1-containing receptors.
  22. Gabapentin (Neurontin) is a pharmaceutical agent, specifically a GABA analogue.
  23. Gabapentin Hydrochloride is a GABA analogue.
  24. AChE inhibitor

    Galanthamine is an AChE inhibitor with IC50 of 14 nM.
  25. mAChR M2 antagonist

    Gallamine Triethiodide is a mAChR M2 antagonist with pronounced cardioselectivity.
  26. COX-1 inhibitor

    Ibuprofen is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) targeting COX-1 with an IC50 of 13 μM.
  27. COX-1 inhibitor

    Ibuprofen Lysine(Motrin) is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug.
  28. COX inhibitor

    Indomethacin is a nonselective COX1 and COX2 inhibitor with IC50 of 0.1 μg/mL and 5 μg/mL, respectively. Indomethacin(Indocid, Indocin) is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory compound commonly used to reduce fever, pain, stiffness, and swelling.
  29. Ipratropium bromide is a muscarinic antagonist, bronchodilator, N-Isopropyl salt of atropine.
  30. Rsogladine is an anti-gastric ulcer agent that facilitates gap-junctional intercellular communication through M1 muscarininc acetylcholine receptor binding.
  31. BACE1 inhibitor

    LY2886721 is a novel potent agent that is used to treat Alzheimer's Disease in preclinical experiments.
  32. Methscopolamine bromide is a competitive antimuscarinic agent that blocks the binding of acetylcholine at muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChR M).
  33. COX inhibitor

    Naproxen sodium is a non-selective cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitor that displays anti-inflammatory, antipyretic and analgesic effects. Has a neuroprotective role against colchicine-induced cognitive impairment and oxidative stress.
  34. Nefiracetam is cognitive enhancer. It activates L/N-type calcium channels, cholinergic, monoaminergic and GABAergic systems.
  35. AChE inhibitor

    Neostigmine bromide is a reversible acetylcholine esterase inhibitor that binds to the anionic binding site of AChE.
  36. Oxybutynin(Ditropan) is an anticholinergic medication used to relieve urinary and bladder difficulties.
  37. α-adrenergic (AR) antagonist/CaM inhibitor

    Phenoxybenzamine is a cell-permeable, non-specific, irreversible α-adrenergic (AR) antagonist that also acts as an CaM inhibitor.
  38. COX inhibitor

    Phenylbutazone is a compound of research interest as an anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative agent.
  39. COX inhibitor

    Piroxicam is an effective and potent inhibitor of prostaglandin synthesis and a Cox-1 and Cox-2 inhibitor.
  40. platelet inhibitor

    Prasugrel is a novel platelet inhibitor used for the reduction of thrombotic cardiovascular events (including stent thrombosis) in patients with acute coronary syndrome who are to be managed with PCI.
  41. COX inhibitor

    Pravadoline (WIN 48,098) is antiinflammatory and prostaglandin synthesis inhibitor, acting through inhibition of the enzyme cyclooxygenase (COX).
  42. Primidone is an anticonvulsant. Potentiates GABAA receptor function.
  43. Gamma-secretase inhibitor

    RO4929097 is an orally bioavailable, small-molecule gamma secretase (GS) inhibitor with an IC50 of 4 nM.
  44. AchR antagonist

    Rocuronium Bromide is a competitive AchR antagonist, used in modern anaesthesia.
  45. muscarinic receptor antagonist

    SVT-40776 is a novel M3 muscarinic receptor antagonist, for the treatment of overactive bladder.
  46. Gamma-secretase inhibitor

    Semagacestat (LY450139) is a γ-secretase blocker for Aβ42, Aβ40 and Aβ38 with IC50 of 10.9 nM, 12.1 nM and 12.0 nM, respectively. Semagacestat also inhibits Notch signaling with IC50 of 14.1 nM.
  47. GABA uptake inhibitor

    SKF 89976A hydrochloride is a potent inhibitor of GABA uptake with IC50 of 0.13, 550, 944 and 7210 μM for hGAT-1, rGAT-2, hGAT-3 and hBGT-1 respectively.
  48. COX inhibitor

    Sulindac is a non-steroidal COX inhibitor, which potently inhibits prostaglandin synthesis, used in the treatment of acute or chronic inflammatory conditions
  49. muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) antagonist

    Tiotropium Bromide (BA679 BR) is a muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) antagonist that blocks the binding of the acetylcholine ligand and subsequent opening of the ligand-gated ion channel.
  50. muscarinic receptor antagonist

    Tolterodine tartrate (Detrol LA) is a muscarinic receptor antagonist which is used for the treatment of urinary incontinence.

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